Task : Go through the following powerpoint describing the command terms:
1. Write down any questions you may have.
2. Complete the following table with examples to populate by finding your number.
3. Do not use any examples from the powerpoint as your examples.
4. Due Monday September 6th

IB Biology Command Terms
These command terms indicate the depth of treatment required for a given assessment statement. These command terms will be use in examination questions, so it is important that you are familiar with the following definitions.
Objective 1
Give the precise meaning of the word, phrase or physical quality.
Represent by means of pencil lines (always label unless told NOT to do so).

external image graphque.gif
Add labels to a diagram.
Give a sequence of names or other brief answers with NO explanation.
Find a value for a quantity.
Give a specific name, value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation.
Add brief notes to the diagram or graph
Please see the word document, as the necessary annotation is seen more easy on the word document than if it was copied in here. (same for objective 4 - no. 7)
Objective 2
Use an idea, equation, principle, theory or law in a new situation
Find a numerical answer showing the relevant stages in the working (unless instructed not to do so).
Give a detailed account.
Give the differences between two or more different items.
Find an approximate value for an unknown quantity.
Find an answer from a given number of possibilities.
Give a brief account or summary

Ex. 1
QUESTION: Outline how enzymes break down proteins.
A> The digestion of proteins starts in the mouth, through the saliva, and travels further down into our stomach where acidic stomach juices start to process the food. When the food continues, it enters the small intestine, where digestive fluids are being released, these being amylase, protease and lipase. The one that breaks down proteins is protease. This happens by the protease going into the food and breaking down the protein so it can be formed into small building blocks that are essential for maintaining the body’s tissue.
Source: http://video.about.com/nutrition/Enzymes-and-Digestion.htm
Ex. 2
QUESTION: Outline the process of mitosis.
A> Mitosis is the process of dividing one parent cell into two daughter cells, identical to the parent cell. Mitosis starts when the cell enters the division stage. There are 4 major phases that the cell goes through. It starts by going into G1 phase where the cell grows and the DNA inside the cell is being prepared to being replicated. When entering S phase which is where the DNA is replicated and the chromatin is duplicated for further use. Upon entering G2 the cell continue to grow and prepare for entering the mitotic division part that has 4 sub-phases. The first phase is called prophase, and this is where the chromatin starts to coil together to form a visual strand of chromatin that can be viewed with a microscope. The nucleus of the cell disappears, allowing the chromatin to flow around. The centrosomes within the cell start to move to each side of the cell. The next phase is called metaphase, and this is where the centrosomes reach the other side of the cell. The coiled chromatin lines up at the equator of the cell, preparing for the microtubules, which are being formed from the centrosomes, to attach. Moving on to anaphase, this is where the microtubules attach the chromatin and pull them apart. Now as the microtubules are starting to pull the chromatin, the centrosomes are starting to pull the cell apart, creating the start of a sideways 8. Finally entering the final phase, called telophase, the chromatin gathers in each end of the cell, and the cell is finally pulled completely apart, making two new cells from the original parent cell.
Source: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/mitosisisg/process.html

Ex. 3
QUESTION: Outline what is meant when stating: ‘evolution is both a theory and a fact’
A> When saying ‘evolution is both a theory and a fact’, it doesn’t sound like it can be true as theory and fact are to completely different states. A theory is something that is believed and a fact is something that has been dated. However, evolution is something that we believe is happening, but we are still seeing facts as we can see how we have evolved throughout time, meaning how we have evolved from being monkeys to humans with complicated brains and movements.
Source: http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/evolution-fact.html
Objective 3
Interpret data to reach conclusions.
Give a judgement based on a given statement or result of a calculation.
Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items, referring to both (all) of them throughout.
Represent or develop in graphical form.
Reach a conclusion from the information given.
Manipulate a mathematical relationship(s) to give a new equation or relationship.
Produce a plan, simulation or model. Ex. 1
QUESTION: Design an experiment that shows how temperature can change when sensor is placed on different surfaces.
A> RQ: If a temperature sensor is placed on different surfaces, will the temperature change?
Hypothesis: If I place a temperature sensor on different surfaces, then it will be hotter when placed on a tennis court in the sun.
· Temperature sensor
· Computer
· Timer

1. Prepare temperature sensors on different grounds, e.g. tennis court, grass, wood or road.
2. Place temperature sensor on different grounds, leaving them for 10 minutes.
3. Let the computer graph the reaction and how much the temperature increases or decreases over the period of 10 minutes.
4. Take down the different surface temperature graphs, and compare and make conclusion.

Ex. 2
QUESTION: Design a model that shows the structure of a DNA strand, showing all 4 different amino acids.
DNA strand
This picture represents the initial idea and data that needs to be displayed on the model. The model can be made out of papier-mâché, and painted with paint once dry. Labels can be written on the model and/or sticking off small pieces of paper that comes off the different parts of the model to show what is what.

Source: http://wwwscq.ubc.ca/a-monks-flourishing-garden-the-basics-of-molecular-biology-explained/
Ex. 3
QUESTION: Design an experiment that shows your understanding of how water and fertilizer affects the growth of a plant.
A> RQ: If fertilizer is added to a plant that is being watered regularly, will this affect the growth of the plant?
Hypothesis: If I water one plant with just water and I add fertilizer to another, then the plant with the fertilizer will grow faster.

· Ruler
· Computer
· Plant seeds
· See-through cops
· Soil
· Fertilizer
· Water

1. Start this experiment by pouring an equal amount of soil into each cup, and then add two seeds into the cup. Label cups, so you know which is which.
2. For the next 5 days, you will water one plant with only water and the other with both water and fertilizer twice a day and leave the plant in the sun.
3. After 5 days, you will measure how tall or long the plant has become, and draw conclusion.

Find the only possible answer.
Sample Grade 4 Multiple-Choice Question. Question text: The surface of the Moon is covered with craters. Most of these craters were formed by A) eruptions of active volcanoes; B) the impacts of many meteoroids; C) shifting rock on the Moon's surface ("moonquakes"); D) tidal forces caused by the Earth and Sun. B is marked as the answer. Percentage correct: Overall: 47, Below Basic: 22, At Basic: 46, At Proficient: 73, At Advanced: 90.
Sample Grade 4 Multiple-Choice Question. Question text: The surface of the Moon is covered with craters. Most of these craters were formed by A) eruptions of active volcanoes; B) the impacts of many meteoroids; C) shifting rock on the Moon's surface ("moonquakes"); D) tidal forces caused by the Earth and Sun. B is marked as the answer. Percentage correct: Overall: 47, Below Basic: 22, At Basic: 46, At Proficient: 73, At Advanced: 90.

source: http://nationsreportcard.gov/science_2005/s0116.asp

Give an account including, where possible, a range of arguments for and against the relative importance of various factors, or comparisons of alternative hypotheses.

Arguments for creating designer babies
Some couples are not able to have children because their children will have a genetic disease and die before they are born or when they are very young. Techniques used to change the genetic make-up of the embryo allow these parents to have a child.
If we want the best for our children why shouldn't we design our own babies? Using genetic techniques we can help prevent certain genetic diseases.

Arguments against creating designer babies
But is this right? In these cases, parents and doctors are creating a child to act as an organ-donating factory. How will the child feel? The child may feel that they were only born to be a help to their older brother or sister. Children should be loved and cherished for themselves and not what they can do for others.
These genetic techniques are very expensive. Why should only rich people be able to eradicate genetic diseases? This could lead to imbalances between rich and poor people.

Assess the implications and limitations.
Give a detailed account of causes, reasons or mechanisms.
Give an expected result.
Give the steps in a calculation or derivation.
Represent by means of a graph showing a line and labelled but unscaled axes, but with important features (for example, intercept) clearly indicated.- Please see the document, as it is easier to display it on word that putting the graph with the labels in this chart.
Obtain an answer using algebraic and/or numerical methods.
Propose a hypothesis or other possible answer.